CHAPTER
I.PRELIMINARIES
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………….. 13
1.2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………. 19
1.3 Significance of the Study……………………………………………….. 19
1.4 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………… 20
1.5 Research Question and Hypotheses…………………………………… . 20
1.6 Limitation of the study………………………………………………….. 20
1.7 Definition of terms……………………………………………………… 21
II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Overview………………………………………………………………. . 22
2.2 Vocabulary acquisition and comprehension………………………….. … 22
2.2.1 The nature of language acquisition…………………………………. … 23
2.2.2 The nature of vocabulary acquisition…………………………………. 23
2.2.3 The need for vocabulary acquisition…………………………………….. 24
2.3 Ways of vocabulary acquisition………………………………………. … 26
2.3.1 Direct vocabulary learning…………………………………………….. 26
2.3.1.1 Foreign-native (L2-L1) associates…………………………………. .. 26
2.3.2 Indirect vocabulary learning…………………………………………. .. 27
2.3.2.1 The context method………………………………………………….. 28
2.3.3 Mnemotechniques in second-language learning……………………… . 31
2.3.3.1 Historical background ………………………………………………. 31
2.3.3.2 The keyword method………………………………………………… 32
2.3.3.3 Position of the keyword……………………………………………… 32
2.3.3.4 Pronunciation similarity of the keyword method…………………… 37
2.4 Comparison of the context method and the keyword method ………….. 38
2.5 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………. 41
III. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………… 41
3.2 Participants……………………………………………………………….. 41
3.2.2 Instrumentation………………………………………………………… 41
3.2.3 Design and procedure………………………………………………….. 43
3.2.4 Statistical analysis……………………………………………………… 43
3.2.5 Teaching procedure……………………………………………………. 43
3.3.3 Collection……………………………………………………………… 43
IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………… 47
4.2 Pre-test results…………………………………………………………… 47
4.2.1 Language proficiency pre-tests results………………………………… 47
4.2.2 Vocabulary pre-tests results……………………………………………. 49
4.3 Vocabulary post-test results……………………………………………… 51
4.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………… 52
V. SUMMARY OF STUDIES, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………… 53
5.2 Restatement of the problem……………………………………………… 53
5.3 Summary of the study……………………………………………………. 54
5.4 Studies done on the effectiveness of mnemonic device………………….. 55
5.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………… 56
5.6 Pedagogical and research implications……………………………………. 57
5.7 Suggestions for further research………………………………………….. 58
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………. 59
APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………………….. 80
LIST OF TABLES
Table page
Table 4.1 …………………………………………………………………….. . 47
Table 4.2 ……………………………………………………………………… 48
Table 4.3 ……………………………………………………………………… 48
Table 4.4 ……………………………………………………………………… 49
Table 4.5 ……………………………………………………………………… 49
Table 4.6 ……………………………………………………………………… 50
Table 4.7 ……………………………………………………………………… 51
Table 4.8 ……………………………………………………………………… 51
Table 4.9 ……………………………………………………………………… 51

ABSTRACT
This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary to pre-intermediate Iranian EFL students through association. The participants were divided into two groups each consisting of 30 female learners within the age of 9-12. The participants were assigned to two groups almost homogenous groups, based on their scores on a general test which had been standardized and validated before. The experimental group received a different treatments, including teaching vocabulary items through mnemonic devices, the control group received traditional vocabulary treatment, that is, the vocabulary items were taught through definitions and synonyms.
The instrumentation used in this study, included a general test of language proficiency, a pre-test and a post-test. The pre-test was a vocabulary test prepared by the researcher, the researcher made a 100 multiple choice items of vocabulary. The pre-test was administered to determine if there is no significant difference between two groups.

در این سایت فقط تکه هایی از این مطلب با شماره بندی انتهای صفحه درج می شود که ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل ورد به داخل سایت کلمات به هم بریزد یا شکل ها درج نشود

شما می توانید تکه های دیگری از این مطلب را با جستجو در همین سایت بخوانید

ولی برای دانلود فایل اصلی با فرمت ورد حاوی تمامی قسمت ها با منابع کامل

اینجا کلیک کنید

At the post test, we inferred that, there is a significant difference between two groups. By utilizing one- way ANOVA technique, it was revealed that the two groups are homogenous. At the end of the term, the post-test was administered. Then the statistical techniques of one-way ANOVA and t-test were utilized to analyze the collected data.
Analysis of the results in the posttest revealed significant differences between control and experimental groups. Hence, it was conducted that the contribution of mnemonic devices in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students led to a higher level of vocabulary improvement.
Key Words: vocabulary, association, learning, techniques.
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARIES

1. Introduction
Vocabulary learning is the largest and the most important task facing the language leaner (Swan and Walter, 1984). Vocabulary has been considered central to the development of language proficiency. The most important need of people learning another language is vocabulary (Laufer & Sim, 1985).
Zimmerman (1997) complains that the teaching and learning vocabulary have been underestimated in the field of second or foreign language acquisition throughout its varying stages and up to present requires serious consideration. Vocabulary as a major part of language learning has been the purpose of numerous studies each of which has its own contribution to the field. Many teachers and scholars feel that teaching vocabulary is a low-level intellectual activity unvalued of their full attention and conclude that words are going to be learned naturally from reading and do not need to be taught ,but students feel that words are very important and are eager learn them (Leki & Carson, 1994; Sherred & Mokhtari, 1993).

Vocabulary learning is an important part of learning that happens to all parts of students academic life , and vocabulary knowledge has been shown to increase comprehension. Students who have difficulty with vocabulary learning are placed under an additional burden, especially when required to read texts that are filled with technical words (Flynt & Brozo, 2008). Unfortunately, many students have a lower keeping rate for vocabularies and need specific strategies to help them increase their considerable vocabulary.
During the period of 1940-1970, vocabulary was neglected in teacher preparation. As Allen (1983) mentioned, this was due to three important reasons First, man felt that one must know how the words work together in English sentence therefore, grammar should be emphasized more than vocabulary. Second, some methodologists Believed that the meaning of words could not be adequately taught. So, it was better to avoid teaching them . Third, some specialists were afraid that being exposed to too many words might lead the students to make mistakes in sentence instruction . Vocabulary is a principle supervisor to. comprehension fluency and achievement Vocabulary development is both an result of comprehension and a precursor to it with word meaning making up as much as 70-80% of comprehension (Davis, 1972; Nagy & Scott, 2000; Pressely, 2002). Fluent readers recognize and know many words and they read more quickly than those with small vocabularies (Allington, 2006; Samuels, 2002). There are various techniques and devices for teaching of vocabulary in teaching methodology. One of these techniques is association by association we mean creating any kind of link between our previous knowledge and the new word to help us find out and /or remember the meaning of the new word.
Association means that for learning word we are trying to find an example of something related something funny or interesting or even a poetry that makes the meaning of the word stay in mind. For example, for learning word (cool) we should say like cooler or air conditioner that cause to cool us. Association involves linking two ideas when you are memorizing lists of words. You can link words by using images.

One of the strategies often used to help language learners learn vocabulary is mnemonic devices the major purpose of this technique is to increase the memory and it is usually used for the students with disabilities. this strategy is not only decided to give them practical guidance about the easiest strategy to learn vocabulary but it also makes their English learning process becomes more interesting , comfortable and memorable for the students in this level and the last, this strategy can help them remember vocabulary presented by the teachers in their memory better. The use of this strategy is intended to increase language learner in the elementary level store and recall vocabulary taught to them in their language learning and communication process. It is also intended to make language learners create more effective ways in their vocabulary learning process because this strategy suggests its users a way to take in encoding vocabulary learning material so that it will be much easier for them to remember (Mastropieeri & Scrugs, 1998).
By using this technique it is also hoped that learners will get easily increasing their memory in order to support their vocabulary learning activity. Because this technique emphasizes on the memorization process learners concentration or remembering the image of words become a unique information in order to memorize it easily.
In one definition Carlson, Kosselin & Rossenberg (2001) define mnemonic devices as
“a memorial method used to help human beings remember easily.” It can help human
beings easily memorize information by organizing them into elaborative code and
visualization so that they can combine it and make connection between the new information
and the previous familiar information they have already stored in their memory. According
to Levin (1993) mnemonic instruction is useful for students among a wide age range.

systematic strategy for strengthening long-term retention and retrieval of
information are referred to as mnemonic strategies. For example: the key word method
(discussed below) was originally developed to help students remember vocabulary in
foreign language courses , but the technique can be applied to other areas as well .

Meeting someone new: 1) repeated their name. Hi, Joseph , I’m Stephen Lennox .2) Use their name with a minute
Joseph, Are you in the counseling program? 3) Associate their name with an image , image
associated with a unique personal features.
How to Memorize Using Mnemonic devices ?
A mnemonic device is a tool used by students and teachers to aid in the memorization
of facts. Mnemonic is a method for increasing memory. When using the term mnemonic
devices, most people are referring to a trick that one uses to help memorize something. The
followings are some mnemonic devices and examples as how to create links : means from
the country Russia press in Farsi means put something on another thing forcefully . and lux
in Farsi means something which is beautiful and expensive but not necessary . From the
meaning of the parts familiar us , we can arrive at the meaning of the words themselves.

a)Breaking the words:
Sometimes if you break the word in to parts , their meaning becomes clear break ‘for
example : Russian in to Russ +ian , or pressure ” into press +ure or luxury in lux+ ury and
so on . Russ in Farsi means from the country Russian press in Farsi means put something
on another thing forcefully and lux in Farsi means which is beautiful and expensive but not
necessary from the meaning at the parts familiar to us , we can arrive at the meaning to the
words themselves.

b) Adding to words:
Sometimes you can arrive at the meaning of a word by adding prefixes or suffix or other words to it. For example: “adapt” means adjust, like an “adaptor” which adjusts the electric current of some devices. We can infer that “ham” is a kind of meat because “hamburger is a kind of food made of meat.

c)Playing with words:
Try to find interesting points, stories, or example for words so that you
will remember them more easily. For example : “Christian” is similar to;
“Christmas ” ; Christmas is the new year celebration.
d) Attending to the sounds of words:
Some words are formed from their sounds. Words like “chick” which reminds
us of jik jike jooje.
e) Alliteration:
Alliteration accurs when a series of words have the same consonant sound. For
example : Peter Piper Picked a Peek of Pickled Peppers.


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